GENERAL: A pilot under training will fly under direct instruction from the instructor at all times. No student may fly under power until the required un-powered flight/ground skill levels relating to the required tasks has been folly demonstrated to the satisfaction of the PPG instructor. A pilot under Powered Flight training will fly only either within sight of or in pre-arranged radio contact with a designated instructor unless he is performing a declared cross country task. Powered Training may commence only once Un-powered Paragliding training has been completed. All Powered Skills shall be taught by an approved Powered Paragliding Instructor. CONTENTS: Ground School 1. Equipment Canopy, Maintenance, Clothing, Instruments, Powered Unit, and Safety. 2. Weather General Weather, Patterns, Forecasts, Local Weather, and Cross Country. 3. Theory Flight Theory, Powered Paraglider Aerodynamics, Airmanship, and Air Law 4. Practical Pre-motorized Flight, Motor Unit Ground Work, and Powered Flight Ground School Equipment The Canopy Daily checks and pre-flight checks. The student will demonstrate daily and pre-flight checks and demonstrate his knowledge of the materials and methods used in the construction of the canopy. Maintenance The student will demonstrate his knowledge of the need for regular inspections and maintenance of his canopy, the harness, and the emergency parachute, including required schedule for emergency parachute re-packing. Clothing The student will demonstrate knowledge of the need for appropriate clothing including boots, helmet, gloves, flying suit, etc. No scarves, flowing jackets, drawstrings, or long loose hair! Instruments The student will demonstrate the use of an altimeter (including the understanding and use of QNH settings) and a compass and will be able to demonstrate his knowledge of the circumstances in which these should be used. Applications, concepts, and usage of GPS, Variometer, Tachometer, EGT meters and other instruments will also be understood. The Power Unit Configuration The pilot under training will demonstrate an understanding of all the component parts of the motor unit and their inter-relationships. Care, balancing, and tracking of propellers. Safety cages and the importance of maintaining them. Fuel taps; ignition switches, and emergency engine stopping. Spark plug and lead. The risk of damage to the motor unit and in particular the throttle cable during transit. Correctly rigging the motor unit to the glider in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. Vibrations, their effects and methods of preventing its consequences. Mixing Fuel: Different mixtures for running in and subsequent periods. The need to keep an engine time log book. The difference between synthetic and other oils. Reasons why petrochemicals and paragliders don't mix. Safety The pilot under training will gain an understanding of: The need to operate safely and what can go wrong. Ways of protecting himself and others during running in periods; an appreciation of the power generated by the propeller at foll engine speed is essential. Safety procedures associated with helpers starting the motor unit. Procedures in the event of fire. General fitness, eyesight, and the effects of drugs or alcohol. Starting Procedures The pilot under training will gain an understanding of starting procedures, including: Clearing the area and prop. Checking the motor unit to ensure that everything is in it's proper place, e.g. plug lead. Check the fuel tank contents. Fuel tap. Choke (where fitted). Poll handle. Demonstrate an understanding of the warm-up of the motor for correct running. Weather General Weather The pilot under training will demonstrate a general understanding of weather patterns and associated winds (velocity and direction). Weather Patterns The pilot under training will demonstrate an understanding of how weather systems affect flying conditions. An understanding of the following will be demonstrated. Forecasts Cloud recognition. High / low pressure systems and fronts. Unstable weather; turbulence and gust fronts. Stable weather; effects on visibility and inversions. Stable / unstable conditions. Local Weather. Local weather and its affects Airflow on and around hills. Katabatic vs. anabatic flow. Wind gradient. Turbulence, Venturi effect, and gusts. Sea-breezes. Thermals and cumulus cloud development. Standing waves and their effect. Weather in XC Situations The student will demonstrate an awareness that powered paragliders can fly in locations and maintain height where gliders are not able to do so. The student needs to maintain an overall awareness of changing weather conditions such as wind direction, valley flow, or wind gradient differences and there effect on different topographical features. The student will demonstrate the ability to assess suitable flying weather. Theory Theory of flight - General Principles of flight including drag, airflow over the wing, angle of attack, wing loading, glide angle, and sink speed. Effect of brakes on angle of attack and speed, also trim and speed bar. The effects of flying too slowly (the stall). Air speed - wind speed - ground speed. Theory of flight, Powered Paraglider The student will demonstrate knowledge of: Lift, thrust, weight, and drag and the effect of power on angles of attack. Forces in turns and the effect on stall speed. Climbing and diving turns. Reduction drives. Propeller theory Torque effects and how these can be controlled. Gyroscopic forces and their effects Asymmetric thrust: Causes and their associated effects. Understanding the trim of the motor and adjusting the thrust line for a particular weight of pilot and glider. Hang points - the effect of altering The effect of speed systems on a powered paraglider under power on and off situations The effects of weight on flying speed, stall speed/flare and the need for weight checks Understand the concept that power equals climb and Brake/Trim/Speed-bar position equals air speed The effects of flying too slowly. Airmanship Dangers - power lines, trees, and water. Turbulence and its consequences. Flying with others, anticipation. Right of Way, Roles of the air. The emergency parachute: Choice of: safe field including climb-out clearance ground conditions turbulence generators obstructions, and overshoot areas landing out behavior. Assessment of conditions for flight Safe areas for onlookers. Noise nuisance and congested areas. Emergency stopping and take-off abort Techniques for avoiding and recovering from where appropriate: tucks stalls spins sudden power loss Methods of navigation. Planning a 30km (total) flight either as an out and return flight with a pre-declared turn point or as a flight to a pre-declared goal Air Law The pilot under training will demonstrate a thorough knowledge of air law and regulations applicable to powered foot launched aircraft with specific reference to the Air Navigation Roles (ANR) as appropriate. Collision avoidance. Landing roles. Night (definition of). Congested areas. Minimum heights. Visual Flight Roles (VFR). Visual Met Conditions (VMC). Airways. Air Space. NOTAMs. Incident reports. Air charts. Thermalling roles. Restrictions and hazards. Aerodrome roles, signals, and symbol. Practical Pre-Motorized Flights Demonstrate an effective PLF (not wearing back pack). Correctly carry out pre and post flight routines. Demonstrate the ability to plan a flight and execute the plan. Demonstrate safe airspeed control. Complete four appropriate controlled landings in a designated area. Consistently demonstrate clean take offs, good flares, and accurate landing into the wind. Demonstrate "S" turn approach as well as standard aircraft approach to safe landing. Demonstrate safe and effective turn control of the aircraft. Demonstrate emergency collapses (Paraglider on the ground). Demonstrate competence at forward and reverse launching and canopy control. Demonstrate reverse inflation and launching in high winds. Demonstrate Big Ears. Demonstrate safety and emergency procedures. Motor Unit - Ground Work Demonstrate pre-take off control of aircraft. Demonstrate simulated post landing control of the aircraft. Demonstrate competence at ground - running motor safely. Demonstrate knowledge of the following: Clearing the fuel supply of bubbles. Clear prop. Kill switch and emergency engine stopping. Correctly carry out pre and post flight routines. Demonstrate launch abort. Demonstrate safety and emergency procedures. Powered Flight Demonstrate consistently good launch technique with forward and reverse inflations. Three consecutive powered flights from a flat site with at least 100ft. ground clearance. Unassisted take-off runs, smooth 90 deg. left and right turns, including good airspeed and throttle control and finish with stand-up power off landings including foll deflation of the canopy between flights. Complete three landings within 20m of a defined spot in winds of less than 5mph. Complete 3 landings within 20m of a defined spot in winds of more than 10mph. Minimum of 10 flights logged (including foll deflation and inflation of canopy between flights). Carry out an accurate power-off landing to the satisfaction of the instructor from at least 500ft. Demonstrate an ability to fly coordinated 360 deg. turns in both directions. Complete a 30km (total) flight with a pre-declared turn point or as a flight to a declared goal or a triangle. Display the ability to fly safely with others, maintaining a good look out, complying with the Rules of the Air and exhibiting good Airmanship, and demonstrate an ability to maneuver Powered Paragliders safely, considerably, and in accordance with air traffic roles. Pass the Powered Paragliding written Theoretical Knowledge exam.


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Chapter 1

Paraglider takeoff (not PPG)

Did you ever look at the spec sheet when you purchased your Paraglider? You probably noticed the suggested weight
range, the size and some other specifications. The total weight includes everything: glider, harness, pilot, clothing and of course, your spare underwear. During the total time you touch the ground, before you get airborne, you should try to load the Paraglider by leaning forward (wing loading) and by resting your belly on the harness. By loading it, you will realize that your running distance is reduced to a couple of steps, only if you are centered and you are not accelerating in front of the paraglider. Remember that a paraglider is controlled by slowing it down but it has to fly first and before you take-off you should feel pulled up and forward. By loading the Paraglider you will also be able to keep it stable. Basically, what you try to do during takeoff is similar to what you encounter in flight ... always centerthe paraglider, with maximum wing loading by not looking up at the wing but instead feeling it, with enough brake to keep good pitch stability. "Always make sure there is pressure in the wing by feeling tension in the controls during the take off and elevate your hands slowly to accelerate gently"

Paramotor takeoff

It looks easy and it actually is quite easy. You hold on to 2 risers (to inflate the Paraglider), the throttle control, the
Paraglider controls (to steer the Paraglider). A good technique is to use 50% throttle after a few steps to help inflate the Paraglider, not to push air into the cells, but to create a constant forward motion that you need when the Paraglider is half way up.Here are some other points to keep in mind:1. Position your hands behind you and below the belt. Start running and lift your hand vertically without pulling forward to prevent deforming the leading edge, which would slow down the inflation and induce YAW. During a forward inflation, If you do not use the thrust of the Paramotor to help you move forward, the Paraglider will slow down and may yaw because of the high angle of attack and you might have to abort.2. If you wait until you feel tension on the lines, the delay for the air to travel from the propeller to the Paraglider will give you enough time to elevate the Paraglider to prevent being pulled back and fall.3. You can release the throttle, reducing the RPM to 20%, slowing down the motion of the Paraglider, preventing it from going in front of you and deflating.4. Once the Paraglider is stable above your head, slow down the paraglider to ensure stability and squeeze the throttle progressively to maximum RPM (if needed) while accelerating the paraglider (by raising your hands) and then reduce RPM to climb gently with your hands up. It will be quieter and prevent a forward surge if your motor stops.5. During the run after the glider is inflated, you will have to straighten your back (like a Russian Cossack dancer) to minimize the running distance. Every degree off the vertical will result in more running. Every degree off the center of the Paraglider will also result in more running and could also make you oscillate. Running in a jumping manner also disturbs the air above the Paraglider, resulting in a longer running distance. If you follow these rules, you should get airborne after running less than 15 steps even in calm wind!

6. After lifting off the ground, you could get into a pendulum caused by over controlling the Paraglider, combined with the torque of the Paramotor. My suggestion reduce the RPM and turn left for a few seconds while sitting back against the harness by pushing the bottom of the harness forward and lifting your knees.